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ARTICLES

Secret Games: Circling Around

The present article was written in the process of preparing for publication the full score of Borodin’s Second Symphony in the author’s version. In the 1930s this task was already accomplished by Pavel Lamm; his work, however, remained unpublished. Though subsequently the author’s version would attract the attention of some scholars and conductors, no publications on it appeared in Russian before 2008. According to the opinion that dominated in the official music historiography, the changes introduced by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Aleksandr Glazunov in the work’s posthumous edition were authorized by Borodin himself. The analysis of manuscript sources, as well as the study of the symphony’s compositional and early performance history, show that such an opinion is erroneous.

The Russian Premiere of Massenet’s Manon: On the Opera’s Stage History, or The Caprices of Success

The article reconstructs some circumstances of the Paris and St Petersburg premieres of Massenet’s Manon (1884, 1885). Though in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the French composer was at the height of world fame, the fate of his music in Russia was not especially ‘lucky’, and this situation persists until the present. With the help of a number of little-known and unknown sources the author attempts to shed light on these important episodes of the history of Russian opera theatre of the 19th century.

The Premiere of the Second Version of the Opera Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk District. The Dramatis Personae and the Performers

This is the first attempt to trace in detail the course of events leading to the premiere of the second edition of Shostakovich’s opera in 1963. The initiatives of the directions of Leningrad and Moscow theatres are discussed, as well as those of the Union of Composers, of some representatives of the artistic community, and of the Soviet bureaucracy. The previously unpublished documents proving that the theatre La Scala (Milan) intended to stage the work’s second version are presented; a hypothesis about the reasons of failure of these plans and about the composer’s attitude is suggested.

Commenting Upon the Musicians’ Texts: a ‘Slow Reading’ or Reading with Stops?

In this article, the author once again proposes an argumentation for his approach to the practice of commenting upon verban and musical texts. The ways for contemporary modifications of the well-known method of ‘slow reading’ and for its transformation into the method of ‘reading with stops’ are characterized. The viability of the author’s concept of commentary is proved on the materials related to different spheres of musicology and musical-cultural studies (facts from the biographies of Glinka and Pushkin, Rakhmaninov’s treatment of ancient sacred tune in his Vespers, a key moment in the creative biography of the pianist Horowitz, etc.); it is shown, in particular, that the author’s concept allows to find new meanings in the musicians’ texts.

Modal Structure of the 17th Century Znamennïy Stichera (on the Example of a First Echos Dogmatikon)

The article is dedicated to the methodology of the modal analysis of the 17th century Russian Znamennïye stichera. On the basis of the ideas stated in Yuriy Kholopov’s treatise ‘Harmony. A Theoretical Course’ (chapter ‘Modes of Modal Type’), the author of the article identifies ‘bearing’ modal polychords and analyzes the balance of stable tones within each melodic unit (popevka). The terms ‘root figure’ and ‘intermediate stable tone’ are introduced. The question of a resultant (aggregate) mode of a chant, comprising the modes of its individual popevki and poetic/musical lines is put forward. Specific conventional signs for individual modes are proposed.

The Musical Theatre of Expressionism: on the History of One-Act Opera

The article explores the evolution of one-act opera in Germany and Austria-Hungary at the turn of the 20th century. It discusses the main characteristics of this opera form and investigates its relationship to the aesthetics of expressionism. Richard Strauss’s Salome and Elektra, Arnold Schönberg’s Erwartung and Die glückliche Hand are in the focus of interest. These works are presented against a wide cultural background, in interrelation with contemporary musical composition, philosophy, dramaturgy, painting.

From Pater Noster to ‘the Father of Peoples’ and Beyond: about S.V. Evseyev’s Choral Music

The article, based on archival materials, is devoted to several unknown compositions by the famous Russian musicologist S.V. Evseyev (Yevseyev, 1894–1956). As composer, he is nowadays all but forgotten. His sacred and secular scores give rise to reflections on the development of the great Russian tradition of choral singing, on the relationship between Moscow ‘Synodal’ and ‘Conservatoire’ schools, and on the transformations of their features as applied to the ‘social commission’ of Stalin’s era.

The Wagnerian Heldentenor: from Origins to our Days

Taking into account Wagner’s writings and other documents of the epoch, as well as works by Russian and foreign scholars, the author analyzes the phenomenon of Wagnerian Heldentenor in a historical perspective: from its origins to our days. The issues discussed in the article include the formation and evolution of the Wagnerian vocal style, Wagner’s collaboration with the first performers of tenor parts in his operas and with the German singing teachers F. Schmitt and J. Hey, and the development of Wagnerian performing style from the late 19th century to our days – in particular, the process of rethinking the notion of Heldentenor.

The Music of ‘Revolutionary France’ as a Prototype of Monumentalism in Early Soviet Culture

The article deals with the history of the reception of French revolutionary musical culture during the early years of the Soviet era. The attitudes of ideological services, artistic elite and mass audiences changed with time; the character of this evolution is demonstrated on a number of examples.

Life and Music in Occupied Smolensk and in Some Other Cities of the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War

The article deals with lesser known aspects of the history of World War II. In the centre of attention is Smolensk, occupied by the Germans from July 1941 to September 1943; some attention is paid also to other occupied Soviet cities. Social, cultural and religious aspects of the life of Soviet citizens under the ‘New Order’ are discussed; the issue of ‘collaborationism’ is touched upon. The musical life in Smolensk in the years preceding the Great Patriotic War and under the Nazi occupation is investigated in detail. The paper is based on archival sources from the State Archives of Smolensk region and the Central State Archives of the High Government Bodies of Ukraine. The information from interviews with those residents of Smolensk who have survived the occupation is used. For the first time the importance of studies of the history of occupation for understanding the history of culture of Russian diaspora is highlighted.

A Soviet-Era Archbishop: Singing Repertoires of Church Hierarch Sergiy (Larin)

The article deals with the problems of Russian Orthodox Church singing in the 1950–60s on the example of the activities of one of the outstanding clerics of the epoch, Archbishop Sergiy (Larin).

The Director of the Imperial Theatres A. M. Gedeonov: the Moscow Sources of his Career as St Petersburg Theatre Manager (Contunuation) An Unknown ‘Horn’ Project And Its Fate

The article deals with the previously unknown episode from the history of Russian horn music and the role played in it by A. M. Gedeonov. The European itinerary of the Russian horn orchestra’s 1830s tour is reconstructed for the first time; the information about the terms of the musicians’ contracts is provided. The importance of A. M. Gedeonov, I. N. Utermark and P. M. Kozlov as the tour’s initiators and organizers is shown. The performers’ concert artivities, the programmes of their concerts, as well as the attitude of the European audiences to Russian musicians and the Russian art of horn playing are analyzed.

Micro-Tone Systems in Russian and Foreign Music

The problems of history and theory of music operating with intervals lesser than semitone are discussed in five essays: “From the History of Micro-Chromaticism”, “The Micro-Space of Sound: the Acoustic and Aesthetic Foundations of Musical Systems”, “On Harmony on Miscro-Chromatic Music”, “Alois Hába’s Harmonielehre”, and “Micro-Chromatic Systems”.

Musorgsky’s Opera Boris Godunov on Its Way to Mariinsky Theatre (1874): Facts, Heroes, Versions

The history of the first production of Musorgsky’s Boris Godunov at Mariinsky Theatre (1874) is discussed from the point of view of official institutions and performers engaged in the fortune of the work by a little known young Russian composer. The comparison of facts reveals new details and unexpected turns in the development of the universally known history. A special attention is paid to the circumstances that gave birth to the popular “myth about the opera Boris Godunov and its author, Musorgsky”. The article is a part of the research project “Russian Imperial Opera: Everyday Life”.

Musical Battles in Russia

The article deals with the genre of musical battle (battaglia), which was very popular in the 18th and early 19th centuries. The most famous piece of this kind was Beethoven’s Wellington’s Victory, or the Battle of Vitoria. The article discusses the musical battles composed in Russia in the early 19th century. The peculiarities of the genre are described; some pieces by D. Steibelt, Pacini, and unknown authors are analysed. The article is supplemented with a catalogue of battle pieces published in Russia in 1812–28.

Orientalism in Stravinsky’s Opera The Nightingale

The article deals with the phenomenon of orientalism in Stravinsky’s opera The Nightingale (1908–1914). The work’s quasi-Chinese idiom is analysed in the context of the European tradition of chinoiserie; its evolution during the seven years of Stravinsky’s work on the opera is examined against the background of the artistic life in the early 20th century St Petersburg and Paris.

Giacinto Scelsi

This is the first Russian biography of the Italian composer Giacinto Scelsi (1905–1988) – aristocrat and “barbarian”, ultra-modernist and neo-archaist, Catholic and Buddhist. The article introduces his music of all genres and creative periods and provides information on his aesthetic views and his world outlook. The article is a part of the author’s large research project dedicated to marginal figures of the 20th century music.

A Musical Emblem in the Era of Iconic Paradigm: on the Contemporary History of a Certain Baroque Theme

The paper discusses semantic reconsiderations of Bach’s aria “Erbarme Dich” (no. 47 from St Matthew Passion) in the framework of contemporary culture. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries Bach’s theme appears in different guises in various artworks: film soundtracks, academic musical compositions and “postmodernist” synthetic projects. The emblematic essence of “Erbarme Dich” crystallises in the context of cultural oppositions, such as sacred / profane, high / low, natural / artificial, and so on.

On the Musical History and Semantics of Midnight

The article discusses the history, the semantical aspects, and the general peculiarities of the musical realization of the image of midnight from the 19th century to our times, including its contemporary “neo-Gothic” interpretations. An important reason for choosing such a topos as subject matter is the extreme character of the means commonly used for its depiction in music.

On the Reception of Mahler in Israel: his Return Home?

The article traces the evolution of the reception of Mahler’s music in Mandatory Palestine and Israel, from the initial attitude, generally rather restrained, conditioned, in particular, by ideological and religious contradictions within the Israeli society, through the tendency to conceive Mahler’s art as a peculiar symbol of the reborn State of Israel. A special attention is devoted to the works of contemporary Israeli literature whose subject matter is related to Mahler’s music.

16th Century Postcomposition: On the Path to the Author’s Opus

Postcomposition – the transformation of a musical text created earlier – was widespread in the performing (often improvisatory) practice of the 16th century and refers to the cantus-type creative method peculiar to the medieval and Renaissance culture in general. However, the 16th century practice shows that a new type of composition was germinating within it, which reflected changes in the worldview and the individual’s self-identification in the spirit of Modern Age. This article demonstrates how the unauthored, commenting type of creativity develops into the author’s one, and a rough text intended for arrangement turns into a finished author’s opus. A whole cultural layer originated at that transitional period, which has not been adequately elucidated by musical historians so far.

All Renaissance musical ranks contributed to the oncoming cultural change: performers (both professional and amateur), publishers and compilers who issued collections of music transcriptions, composers and, finally, the emerging community of music lovers who determined the aesthetic tastes of the time and showed the way to the New Music.

The postcompositional transformation of a musical work has become an actual creative method in our time, though with an opposite trend: from the author’s opus to interpretation, to a commentary on the chosen finished text.

The Comic Theatre of Georg Philipp Telemann

The article discusses the principal stylistic features of Telemann’s theatre works on the example of his comic operas.

Social Welfare for the Artists of the Russian Imperial Opera

The article discusses the development and functioning of the pension system for the artists of the Imperial Theatres. A special attention is paid to the definition of the specific character of the artists’ pensions in comparison with those for common citizens and court servants. The character and scope of the social support of an artist in case of his/her illness are analyzed, as well as the social aid provided for an artist’s widow and orphans.

Bernhard Pollini as Tchaikovsky’s Impresario Abroad

The name of Bernhard Pollini, who was one of the most influential and famous figures of the late 19th century theatre, is not common in reference and professional literature on music and theatre. However, it was he who for a quarter of a century directed the musical and theatrical life of Hamburg – one of the largest cultural centres of Europe. Besides, he was one of the earliest advocates of Russian music in Germany. This is the first attempt to reconstruct the history of his relationships with Tchaikovsky. The study is based on Pollini’s unpublished correspondence from the Klin archives. A study of foreign musical periodicals of the time helped to supplement Pollini’s biography and to outline some new hypotheses.

Rakhmaninov and Gramophone Recording

The article analyzes Rakhmaninov’s interaction with the American gramophone recording industry. The development of recording in the 20th century and its importance for musicians and composers are discussed.

Jean Barraqué (1928–1973)

This is the first Russian biography of the French composer, Messiaen’s pupil Jean Barraqué (1928–1973). A devotee of serial technique and pointillism, he strived to resolve but the most complex creative tasks and, having Beethoven as a benchmark, worked only in large monumental forms. His mature legacy consists of six finished scores; three of them were inspired by Hermann Broch’s philosophical novel The Death of Virgil. The article is a part of the author’s large research project dedicated to marginal figures of the 20th century music.

M. G. Aranovsky’s Theory of Melody

The article presents the theory of musical syntax elaborated by the outstanding Russian musicologist M.G. Aranovsky (1928–2009). In spite of the theory’s merits, it has not been in demand in the Moscow Conservatoire teaching practice; the reasons for this are discussed.

Aleksandr Blok’s Free Verse and Problems of its Musical Interpretation

The article is devoted to the issue of poetic melodiousness, in particular, to the analysis of melodic meaning of A. Blok’s free verse. It is assumed that being formally closer to prose, Blok’s free verse is essentially a poem and, moreover, it is poetry to the full extent. The peculiarities of the ‘musicalization’ of free verse’s poetic intonation are shown on the examples of three composers’ settings of the poem ‘It’s night. The town is still…’ (by A. Raskatov, A. Buzovkin, G. Banshchikov).

The Russian Musical Presence in Spain: Anton Rubinstein and Igor Stravinsky

The history of Spanish concert tours of two great Russian musicians is examined in the broad context of the development of Spanish musical culture and concert life, including both artists’ contacts with native musicians and great international stars. The text is supplemented with previously unpublished illustrative materials.

Stravinsky à l’Español

In Russian musicological literature, this is the first attempt to analyze the phenomenon of “Spain in Stravinsky’s reception”, taking into account such aspects as the reflection of Spanish subjects in Stravinsky music. Stravinsky’s response to Spanish music and Spanish artistic mentality, the circle of Stravinsky’s contacts among Spanish musicians and artists.

Sergey Prokofiev’s Spanish Relationships

The article deals with various aspects of the theme ‘Prokofiev and Spain’: from Prokofiev’s childhood, his youthful studies of Spanish and his acquaintance with the music of contemporary Spanish composers through his meeting with Lina Llubera, the history of Spanish subject matters in his music, and his contacts with Spanish musicians.

Leonid Myasin’s Spanish Ballets

The essay presents the history of the great dancer and choreographer Leonid Myasin’s (also known as Massine) acquaintance with Spain. His Spanish impressions were reflected in his ballets staged in collaboration with eminent Russian and Spanish artists. Myasin’s contribution to Spanish theme is characterized as the most outstanding body of ballets ever created on Spanish subject matters.

One of the Russian Projects of Vicente Martín y Soler: Fedul and his Children in the Library of the Mariinsky Theatre

The study of the autograph score of the comic opera Fedul and his Children composed in 1791 by Martín y Soler (in co-autorship with V. Pashkevich, to libretto by Catherine II) has proved that a certain part in the work’s creation was played by Giuseppe Sarti. The manuscript contains numerous editorial corrections made by Sarti’s hand; the reasons for his participation in the project are discussed.

The opera Il dissoluto punito, ossia Don Giovanni Tenorio by R. Carnicer: on the History of Spanish Musical Theatre of the Early 19th Century

The article deals with the famous Spanish romantic composer R. Carnicer’s opera Il dissoluto punito, ossia Don Giovanni Tenorio. The author analyzes the structural features of the opera and its position in the history of Spanish musical theatre. A special objective is to examine the influence of Mozart and Rossini on Spanish music and musical life.

The Image of History in the Symphonic Oeuvre by M. A. Balakirev (“Overture on the Theme of Spanish March”)

Analyzing M. Balakirev’s piece based on a theme proposed by M. Glinka (in two versions) and comparing the piece with Glinka’s own Spanish overtures, the author shows that by mid-1850s Glinka’s tradition was substantially transformed in the oeuvre of his immediate successors. The author also pays attention to the fact that in this early piece a new, uncompromisingly tragical idea of history was formed; this allows to compare Balakirev’s vision of history with the more recent musical “historiosophy” of Musorgsky.

The Birth of Russian Carmen

The article presents the history of early productions of Carmen in Russia, preceding the opera’s translation into Russian and its triumph on the stage of the Russian Imperial Opera in 1885. Since then, Carmen has been largely perceived in Russia as a symbolic image of Spain. An information is provided about the performances, as well as about the performers of the title role: M. A. Slavina, E. K. Pavlovskaya, and M. Figner.

Carmen on the Soviet Opera Stage

The article deals with the history of the reception of Bizet’s opera during the Soviet era. The examined topics include the specifics of the symbolization of its image in mass culture, the rise of new connotations conditioned by the ideological and artistic contexts of the Soviet epoch, the most important staging conceptions of the ‘20–30s, the adaptations of the opera’s different meanings by means of ‘word about music’. The comparative analysis of the main role’s stage interpretations shows how the verbal elucidations of the opera’s substance influenced the Carmen performance canon in Soviet theatres.

Krzysztof Penderecki’s Offering

The article is dedicated to Penderecki’s Psalm 3 for choir a cappella – a piece composed in 2015 specially for the centenary of the Armenian Genocide in Ottoman Empire.

The Armenian Octoëchos and Khaz Notation as Phenomena of Medieval Christian Culture

Though the medieval Armenian hymnography is based on the same general principles as the hymnography of other churches, the Armenian hymnody has retained some archaic traits which, obviously, disappeared from other traditions. The most important categories of medieval hymnography include the neumatic (in Armenian, khaz) notation and the octoëchos – a system of eight canonized melodic models, serving as source material for the whole body of hymn tunes. The article, on the example of the Armenian neumes and the Armenian version of octoëchos, reveals some essential characteristics of the archaic hymnody. It is shown that during the late Middle Ages the initial, strictly organized and canonized system disintegrated, giving way for individual creation. The article is intended to ‘demythologize’ the so-called khaz problem, which has been inadequately interpreted in the Armenian literature.

The Musical Chronicle of the Patriotic War of 1812

The article is dedicated to the virtually unexplored topic of immediate musical reactions to the events of the Patriotic War of 1812 in the oeuvre of Russian composers and of foreign musicians working in Russia.

The Director of the Imperial Theatres A. M. Gedeonov: the Moscow Sources of his Career as St Petersburg Theatre Manager

This is the first attempt to throw light on the Moscow period of the life and career of A.M. Gedeonov (1791–1867), who is remembered as highly authoritative director of the Russian Imperial Theatres. The examined topics include Gedeonov’s Moscow environment, his experience of managing the Italian opera company, his participation in the city’s important cultural events, his immediate contacts with the organizers of the Moscow theatrical life. All this had an impact on his future activities as an outstanding theatre manager.

Theatricalization and Dramatization of Chamber Genres in Robert Schumann’s Vocal Music

This publication is an excerpt from the forthcoming book on Robert Schumann’s song theatre. The article deals with Schumann’s late chamber vocal music and its connections with poetry and theatre. The genre evolution is studied on the example of works that are transitional between vocal cycle and mono-opera (opp. 104, 117 and 135) and between vocal cycle and cantata (opp. 74 and 138). A definition of the term ‘theatricalization’ is proposed.

On the Reception of the Russian Music Abroad: the Russian Émigré Composers in Berlin in the ‘20s

This essay is based on the exploration of Russian and German magazines and newspapers in Berlin of the ‘20s, as well as on the material from the letters and memoirs of that time. The study focuses on the important musical events of ‘Russian Berlin’, as seen from the point of view of composers, interpreters and listeners (reviewers).

Film Music: The Theory of Technologies

The article presents a review of the basic literature on the theory of film music technologies. The basic concepts of sound film music are discussed on the examples of works of Russian and foreign (Polish, German, French, English and American) scholars.

S. I. Taneyev’s Writings on the Theory of Counterpoint

The article contains a survey of the writings by Sergey Taneyev, an eminent Russian composer and music theorist, dealing with the theory of counterpoint. Taneyev’s theoretical views are analyzed on the material of his books Convertible Counterpoint in the Strict Style (first published in 1909) and The Study of Canon (unfinished, published posthumously in 1929). The development of Taneyev’s theory in the works of Russian specialists in polyphony is traced.

The Theoretical Conception of B. L. Yavorsky

During his lifetime, Boleslav Leopol’dovich Yavorsky (1877–1942) enjoyed high reputation as musicologist, thinker, and teacher. A considerable part of his legacy, however, has remained unpublished. In this article, an attempt has been made to summarize Yavorsky’s theoretical views, reflected in his unfinished outline of an integrated and consistent theory of musical language.

The Conception of B. V. Asafiev

Boris Vladimirovich Asafiev (1884–1949) is universally known as the founder of the theory of intonation. Some of the latter’s aspects, however, are not sufficiently elucidated in Asafiev’s writings, giving rise to ambiguous interpretations. The article provides a general image of Asafiev’s theoretical ideas and brings forward a comprehensive interpretation of his theory of intonation.

Heinrich Schenker and His Analytical Theory

The article describes and comments upon Heinrich Schenker’s theory of tonal music, largely known as one of the most influential theoretical doctrines of the 20th century.

On the traces of Schenker: Reductionism

The rise of popularity of Heinrich Schenker’s theoretical doctrine in the 2nd half of the 20th century was largely conditioned by its ideological closeness to the generative syntax by Noam Chomsky. The article discusses the trends in musicology continuing these two doctrines; a special attention is paid to the treatise by F. Lerdahl and R. Jackendoff A Generative Theory of Tonal Music (1983).

The Development of Functional Theory in the 20th Century Russian Musicology

The author surveys the achievements of Russian musicology based on the functional approach to the study of harmony, monodic scales, musical form and melodic syntax, as well as of the music as an integrated phenomenon ruled by the laws of psychological perception.

Set Theory in the USA: Milton Babbitt and Allen Forte

The so-called set theory is a well-known contemporary methodology used mainly in the analysis of new music, especially free atonal and twelve-tone. The article presents the fundamentals of the theory, discusses its merits and limitations.

Bortnyanasky, Tchaikovsky & Jurgenson

Dmitriy Bortnyansky and Peter Tchaikovsky belonged to different generations; hence, their artistic ideals and stylistic systems differed considerably. The names of these two composers, however, are inseparably linked in the ‘Complete Sacred Musical Works by Bortnyansky, edited by Tchaikovsky’, published by Peter Jurgenson’s house. In this article, Tchaikovsky’s editorial work is analyzed from the perspectives of source criticism and chronology, in terms of organization, structure, and style.

“…I’m not a priest, I’m a trade-union member…” (the Dramsoyuz Affair)

The article deals with archival documents related to the creation, activities, and liquidation of the Choral Section of Dramsoyuz (“Drama Union”, a copyright agency) in the 1920s. The section in question was quite numerous, its members included church music composers. The materials of Dramsoyuz are important for the history of Orthodox Church singing during the Soviet period, since they shed some light on the posterior development of church choral repertoire. Besides, these materials have a more universal value: they reveal the contradictions of the 1920s in a peculiarly pointed, paradoxical, sometimes absurd manner.

On the Creative History of the Labyrinths by Nikolay Sidelnikov: The Master’s Orbit

The author tries to detect the multiple influences of biographical context on the content and structure of Nikolay Sidelnikov’s novel-symphony Labyrinths.

Roberto Gerhard (1896–1970)

This is the first Russian biography of the Spanish (Catalan), later British composer, Schoenberg’s pupil Roberto Gerhard (1896–1970). The article is a part of the author’s large research project dedicated to marginal figures of the 20th century music. Like the earlier biographical essays of the same cycle published in this journal’s previous issues (‘Giacinto Scelsi’, No. 1–2, 2011; ‘Jean Barraqué’, No. 3, 2013), the text is supplied with numerous music examples and sound illustrations.

M. I. Glinka’s Journey to the Caucasus: Something New about his Fellow Travellers and his Contacts at Spa Resorts

The article is based on two commentaries prepared by the author for the fourth book of ‘Glinka’s Journeys’ dealing with Glinka’s Caucasian trip of 1823. The observations presented here may enlarge, refine, or even change our views on Glinka’s milieu and the character of his social contacts. The discovery of previously unk¬nown facts enrich our knowledge about the cultural context of Glinka’s youth. His acquaintances made during his stay at the Caucasian spa resorts are all but unexplored by his biographers. And yet they played a peculiar role in the young composer’s formation as individual and, probably, also as artist. The author’s principal task is to revive these figures for a contemporary reader; for this purpose, the method of culturological commentary is used.

Fenella at the Imperial Theatres

The article is based on the paper presented at the international conference ‘Russian–French Musical Dialogues’ (‘Keldïsh Readings’-2012, State Institute of Arts Studies). D.F.E. Auber’s opera La muette de Portici (also known as Fenella) is regarded in the context of literary, artistic, and theatrical interests of the Russian audiences of the 19th and 20th centuries. Presenting a number of facts previously disregarded in special literature, we have tried to assess in a new way the history of the opera’s stagings at the Imperial Theatres; to retrace the peculiarities of the work’s interpretation by the artists of German, Italian, and Russian companies; to evaluate the contribution of outstanding performers and theatre directors to the creation of the ‘Russian Fenella’

Wagnerian Contexts in Tchaikovsky’s Biography

The article deals with Wagnerian influences on Tchaikovsky’s creative development. A special attention is paid to his contacts with Wagner’s most active champions and close associates, Hans von Bülow and Karl Klindworth (Tchaikovsky’s correspondence with the latter is published in Russian translation for the first time). The circumstances of Tchaikovsky’s contacts with the great Wagnerian conductor Hans Richter are elucidated. A question of special (and as yet unexplained) influence of Wagnerian context on Tchaikovsky’s evolution is put forward.

Rostropovich, Myaskovsky, Prokofiev, Shostakovich: for Cello

The author examines the history of Rostropovich’s creative contacts with three 20th century Russian composers, whose cello works laid the foundation for the extended repertoire dedicated to this artist. The account of the details of Rostropovich’s collaboration with the composers is based on musical and verbal sources, published and archive materials.

An Essay in Analysis of Free Improvisation on the Example of the Album Fine by the AMM Group

The questions of taking shape in a freely improvised music are discussed on the example of the album Fine by the AMM group. The form of this particular group improvisation is regarded as a sequence of interrelated stable and non-stable episodes, where the elements of stability can be represented by any more or less intense repetitive, similar, or prolonged elements and their combinations. Such episodes add up to traditional structures, confirming V. Bobrovsky’s idea about five fundamental logical functions of composition. In a group free improvisation these functions every time assume a specific, individual character.

European Primadonnas in Russia: 1840–1843

The article deals with guest performances of G. Pasta, A. Bishop, and S. Heinefetter in Russia. Taking newspaper publications as the basis for in-depth research, the author restores the earlier unknown circumstances of the life and performances of European primadonnas in St Petersburg and Moscow, brings to light the programs of their recitals and their operatic repertoire, analyzes the Russian audience’s perception of the art of famous sopranos and the general image of a foreign diva that was formed as a result of their appearances.

The Invisible City of Ledenets: Christianity and Comparative Literary Studies in N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov’s Late Operas

The essay focuses on the literary side of Christian music drama and its decisive influence on the structure of the operas of this type. As is shown, the concept of The Tale of Tsar Saltan comes to a large extent from the works of A.N. Veselovsky: both their material and the method of comparative literary analysis, as well as the very idea of borrowing as a dialogue of cultures, had a powerful influence on the librettist V.I. Bel’sky, whose texts, in their turn, gave to N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov an impulse to take a new direction in his work as composer.

The Study of Arabic Musical Sources: a Quest for Concealed and Symbolic Meaning

The Arabic medieval writings on music describe, in particular, its theoretical aspects and psychological effects, a whole gamut of experiences it produces, the variety of its virtues. The absence of musical notation and of concrete relics of the sophisticated musical art of the remote ages makes these descriptions largely arcane. On the example of four case studies the author shows how rich are the writings in question in concealed and symbolical meanings, whose deciphering requires a good command of the language, a solid knowledge of the culture, and a direct firsthand consultation of manuscript documents.

Pierre Boulez. Composer`s Gesture

The article is based on the paper presented at the international conference “Russian–French Musical Dialogues” (“Keldïsh Readings-2012”, State Institute of Arts Studies). The main object of analytic research is Boulez`s work in the late 90s (according to J.J. Nattiez, the period of his “second practice”). The composer finds new fundamentals of his work not in the intellectual concepts such as “series”, but in the bodily orientated performance practice, where “musical gesture” serves as a main element analogical (in a way) to classical theme or motif. These ideas are developed by the composer in his own analysis of the piece “Sur Incises”, which is the starting point for the present article.

The Limits of a Scholarly Edition of the Collaborative Opera-Ballet Mlada

The opera-ballet Mlada was composed in 1872 in response to a commission from the director of the imperial theaters, Stepan Gedeonov. Five composers — César Cui, Modest Musorgsky, Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Alexander Borodin, and Ludwig Minkus — participated in the composition, but the work remained unfinished. Now a scholarly edition of the surviving parts of Mlada is forthcoming. The American publisher A–R Editions in Middleton, Wisconsin, has accepted an edition by the author of this article. The volume is scheduled for publication in 2015. The difficulties encountered in the edition’s preparation are discussed. Since some scenes are considered lost and others were never composed, it turned out to be impossible to produce a complete, continuous version satisfying scholarly standards, that it, without freely composing the lacking music anew. It is explained why two musical numbers have been reconstructed — Cui’s trio from act 1 and Borodin’s Chorus of the Idolaters from act 4 — but not any others, such as Musorgsky’s Chernobog scene from act 3. The circumstances leading to the exclusion of Minkus’s ballet music are also discussed.

ANNOUNCEMENT

35th International Festival of Contemporary Music ‘Moscow Autumn’

The ‘Moscow Autumn’ is a large-scale multi-genre contemporary music festival. This year it celebrates the 35th anniversary of its foundation and the 20th anniversary of its international status. A highly prestigious forum of professional musical creation, the festival presents Russian and world premières of our contemporaries – composers from Moscow and other Russian cities, as well as from other countries, representing different generations, styles, schools, and movements.

DISSERTATIONS

Dissertations defended in 2008–12

REVIEWS

Bibliographic News
Presentation of new editions: N. Yu. Plotnikova’s monograph on Russian partesnïy (polyphonic) chant, collection of articles and materials in memory of Yu. V. Keldïsh, new issue of the series ‘Russian Orthodox Church Singing in the 20th Century’.
A review of recent publication on Russian Orthodox musical culture
Review of the book: Vlasova Ye. S. The Year 1948 in Soviet Music. A Documented Study. Moscow: Klassika XXI. 2010. 456 p.
Once more about Glinka’s tourism and its consequences

The review of the book Glinka’s Wanderings. Commentary to “The Memoirs”. Part III. Journey to the Pyrenees, or Spanish Arabesques by S. V. Tyshko and G. V. Kukol’ (Kiev, 2011) consists of three parts. The first part considers a novelty of the authors’ answer to the question: why did Glinka travel to Spain? The second part is devoted to methodological aspects of the study. The third part includes comments on the book from the leading Ukrainian scholars Nina Gerasimova-Persydska, Maryna Cherkashyna-Gubarenko and Elena Zinkevich.

Qualifying Musicology

The article deals with dissertations in musicology defended at Roman Nasonov’s class at the Moscow Conservatoire. All the three works under review explore European music of Baroque and Classicism: Antonenko E. Baldassare Galuppi’s Church Music: Issues of Study and Performance (2013); Zhdanov V. Sacred Concerto in the Oeuvre of North German Composers of the Second Half of the 17th Century (2015); Nogovitsïna K. Secular Vocal-Instrumental Concerto in the Oeuvre of Biagio Marini and His Northern Italian Contemporaries (2016). All the three dissertations contain musical transcripts; all can be easily characterized as excellent pieces of scholarship.

E. M. Levashev, N. I. Teterina. Historicism in Musorgsky’s Artistic Thinking

A review of one of the fundamental recent books on the history of Russian music and one of the most important studies of Musorgsky’s oeuvre.

A. S. Lyapunova In Memoriam; T. A. Zaytseva. M. A. Balakirev’s Creative Lessons. Pianism, Conducting, Teaching; A. A. Alekseev-Boretsky. Nikolay Ivanovich Zaremba

A review of three recent St Petersburg publications centred around the lives and fortunes of outstanding Russian musicians of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Review of the Book Postmoderne hinter dem Eisernen Vorhang

MATERIALS OF PAST CONFERENCES

Theory and Practice of New Music in the Academic Courses of the Moscow State Conservatoire

Papers delivered by Russian scholars at the conference ‘Musicians and Musicologists as Teachers’, organized by the University of Bologna in collaboration with the journal Il Saggiatore musicale and the International Musicological Society (Bologna, May 2014).

The New Music occupies currently an important place in the Conservatoire’s curriculum, including the fundamental courses of music history, harmony, counterpoint, musical forms, etc. Since the early 2000s some new special courses have been added. They are given by the members of the Conservatoire’s Contemporary Music Department. The contents of the courses are related to the specialization of students. For example, the future composers are studying especially new composition techniques, while for the future performers new repertoires and new techniques of playing are more important. There is also a post-graduate class on contemporary orchestra, offering a specialization in the field of New Music performance practice and serving as a base for the internationally renowned ensemble of soloists Studio for New Music.

Musiktheoretische Studie der Arienform in Italienischer Opern des 18. Jahrhunderts und die Umgestaltung des Formenlehrekursus

Papers delivered by Russian scholars at the conference ‘Musicians and Musicologists as Teachers’, organized by the University of Bologna in collaboration with the journal Il Saggiatore musicale and the International Musicological Society (Bologna, May 2014).

The paper focuses on the question of the place occupied by the 18th century Italian aria in the general system of musical forms. This question is relevant for both music theory and pedagogy. Whether aria influenced instrumental genres or this process was inversed?

Throughout the history of professional musical education in Russia (since the 19th century to the present day) both the general music theory and courses of musical form were usually based on instrumental music. However, studies in recent decades show that in the crystallization of a number of structures and principles of composition in the first half of the 18th century aria takes the priority position . The principles in question include that of ritornello underlying the Baroque concerto; the principles of recapitulation and ternary form established in the Italian arias in the 1680s (earlier than in the instrumental genres); the principle of thematic contrast . The Italian opera played a key role in the formation of the attributes of classical musical theme, including its lexical topoi, its homophony treatment, its metric and syntactic periodicity, and the fractionality of its motivic structure. The establishment of the two-subject sonata form took place in the framework of da capo aria simultaneously with instrumental music (1720–50s). The Italian aria played a decisive role in the birth of sonata form with double exposition, which is typical for the classical concerto.

In my course of musical form for musicologists and performers at the Russian Gnessins Academy of Music I discuss the theory and history of the 17th and 18th century musical forms taking into account all these factors . This introduces significant adjustments in the traditional practice of musical form teaching in Russia and thus brings the students’ understanding closer to the real processes that occurred in the music of the 18th century.

EXCERPTS FROM BOOKS IN PROGRESS

Evolution and Metamorphoses of Traditional Musicological Categories in the New Music. Chapter 2 – Melody

The present text is an excerpt from the large work in progress, provisionally entitled Theoretical Foundations of the New Music: from Debussy and Schoenberg to Our Days. The work will consist of two parts: 1. ‘Evolution and Metamorphoses of Traditional Musicological Categories in the New Music’; 2. ‘Tendencies, Movements, Leaders of the New Music: a Historical Survey’. Here is presented the 2nd chapter of Part 1, ‘Melody’, in three sections: 2.1. ‘The Melodic Writing of the New Viennese Classics; 2.2. ‘The Melodic Factor under the Conditions of Serial Rhetoric’; 2.3. ‘The Development of the Idea of Klangfarbenmelodie. The Melodic Writing in New Contexts. The Universal Features of a “Good” Melody’.

Sonic Ruins of Modernity: Folksongs in the Post-Tradition Era

The present text is an introduction to the forthcoming book Sonic Ruins of Modernity: Folksongs in the Post-Tradition Era by Israeli musicologist Edwin Seroussi. The author comments on the substantial changes in the concept of tradition in the 20th century and suggests his own approach to the folk song tradition in the modern era, i. e. hypothesis of viewing a folksong as a place, a site of ruins that is visited and revisited during any utterance of and exposure to it. Taking folksongs in Judeo-Spanish as a case study, Seroussi proposes a methodology that was created to explore the interactions of the minute interplay of the individual memories, artistic initiatives, political manipulations, media policies, and scholarly undertakings that shape the ‘cosmic game of tradition’ (Richard Taruskin) in the 20th century.

Spain as Seen by Glinka: Travel and Stopover

This text is a chapter of the forthcoming book from the series entitled “Glinka’s Wanderings”. Trying to comprehend the spirit of the epoch and to give a meaning to the forgotten or little known ideas and images croping up from the pages of Glinka’s memoirs, the authors explore texts by writers from different countries, depicting their reception of Spain. The travelogues of A. Dumas, V. Botkin, R. Ford, Th. Gautier, W. Irving, P. Mérimée and G. Sand, as well as the letters of F. Chopin and F. Liszt not only provide rich information about Spain, but also allow to sense the enthusiasm of pioneers in the face of new and uncommon land, which until the mid-19th century remained a kind of terra incognita for the most part of Glinka’s contemporaries.

“Russian Wagner” on the Pages of Doctor Zhivago

This article is a part of the monograph Classical Music in the Soviet Era Myth Making, due for publication in Moscow (“Novoe Literaturnoe Obozrenie” publishing house). The article examines the influence of symbolist aesthetics, mediated by Wagnerian motives, on Pasternak’s novel Doctor Zhivago. The functioning of the motives in question in the novel has its roots in the reception of Wagner’s oeuvre by the culture of the Russian Silver Age.

Models of Musical Speech

This publication – an excerpt from the forthcoming book “Music in the Mirror of Philosophical Reflection of Islamic Civilization: Classical Theory and Contemporary Practice” – discusses the architectonics of musical speech as an image of the world. The main attention is paid to the heterogeneity of the philosophical reflection and classical theoretical thought of the 10th – 15th centuries and to the explanation of the differences in onthological principles, revealing to us two different musical images of world. Therefore our special objective is to establish the system-making factors of the interaction between musical language and musical speech, allowing to clarify the notion of “Islamic music” in the light of the special behavious of the basic structure known as maqām.

The “Sonoristic” Techniques in the Polish Piano Music of the ‘60–80s

The piano music by T. Sikorski is a rare example of minimalism in the context of Polish “sonoristics”. J. Łuciuk and P. Szymański also composed avant-garde sonoristic piano compositions, highly original as regards their notation, sound atmosphere, and emotional content. This article is a part of the forthcoming monograph on the 20th century Polish piano music.

Stephen Schwartz: From Rock Opera to Modern Musical

This publication is a fragment of the monograph Composers Who Wrote Musicals the author is presently working on. The book tells about those composers, who have laid the foundation of the mainstream musical as a new genre of musical and dramatic art, the beginnings of which date back to the end of the 19th century and which flourished in the 20th century. The present article is its chapter on Stephen Schwartz, a famous American composer.

Review of the Book Postmoderne hinter dem Eisernen Vorhang

The major work in preparation, whose fragments are published here, is the first attempt to unite within a single book the information about all the Russian-language items on Tchaikovsky published during 140 years. The author explored materials kept in Russian libraries, as well as published in general bibliographical surveys, musicological studies, and monographs on Tchaikovsky.

FROM THE HISTORY OF MUSICOLOGY

Konstantin A. Kuznetsov’s Work for Moscow News (1934–39)

The article deals with the history of collaboration of the outstanding Russian musicologist Konstantin Kuznetsov with the American-Soviet printed media project Moscow News. The analysis of his numerous articles and reviews written in English adds new facts to his bi-ography and throws new light on his activities, as well as on his personality. The article is supplemented with lists of Kuznetsov’s publications in Moscow News and Moscow Daily News, as well as with original English texts of some of his writings (see Publi-cations).

PRESENTATIONS

The Musical Classics in the Myth-Building of Soviet Era

This book is the first attempt to reconstruct the history of the reception of classical musical heritage during the Soviet era. The book’s materials include various documents interpreting the meanings of classical music: music-critical and musicological writings, political documents, musical and literary works, films, and sources on the history of Soviet theatre.

As a result, the book’s ‘heroes’ include not only the classical composers, whose music is mirrored in the interpretations of the Soviet era, but also politicians, philosophers, historians, writers, poets, theatre and film directors and actors, ballet masters, artists and, naturally, musicians and musicologists. The study is centred upon the principles and mechanisms of the ‘reduction’ of classical heritage that took place during the Soviet era; it surveys the influence of such a reduction on the perception of music by mass audiences and on the Soviet art in general, and reveals its role in the formation of the concept of ‘Soviet culture’. The historical context of the popularization of classical music in the Soviet culture is analyzed, as is the formation of the image of classical music that still affects the present-day mass consciousness.

Completion of the ‘History of Russian Music in 10 Volumes’

The members of the editorial board of the collective monograph ‘A History of Russian Music in 10 Volumes’ relate the story of this publication, written during more than three decades by the members of the State Institute of Arts Studies (formerly All-Union Research Institute of Arts Studies) and completed in 2012.

Mendelson-Prokofieva M. A. About Sergey Prokofiev. Memoirs. Diaries (1938–67) Elena Krivtsova presents the collection of memoirs

Elena Krivtsova presents the collection of memoirs and diaries by M. A. Mendelson-Prokofieva – Prokofiev’s second wife, collaborator and biographer. The book, edited by E. Krivtsova, with her preface and comments, was published in 2012 by the publishing house ‘Kompozitor’ in collaboration with the M. I. Glinka All-Russian Museum of Musical Culture (ARMMC). This is the first full publication of these documents; the original manuscripts are kept in ARMMC.

PUBLICATIONS

Alexandr Glazunov’s Letters to His Daughter

This is the first publication of Glazunov’s letters to his foster daughter Elena Günther-Glazunova, dating from January to December 1933. The letters throw additional light on many details of Glazunov’s artistic and private life in emigration and on his relationships with Russian and foreign musicians.

K. A. Kuznetsov. Selected Articles (1934–37)

A selection of articles written by the outstanding musicologist Konstantin Kuznetsov (1883–1953) in English for the weekly Moscow News and the Moscow Daily News in the mid-1930s and lists of publications is presented.

Sergey Vasil’evich Evseyev. Fragments of Notebooks: 1922–32

The notebooks of the outstanding music theorist Sergey Evseyev are of great interest as a document of the Soviet era, evoking many pages of the history of the Moscow Conservatoire, of the capital’s opera and dramatic theatre, and of the everyday life of the musical community during a turbulent decade in the history of the Russian musical culture.
Introductory article, publication and commentaries by Olesya Bobrik.

Unknown Versions of Several Episodes from Shostakovich’s The Nose

Among the manuscript materials pertaining to Shostakovich’s opera The Nose, kept at the Russian State Archive of Literature and Arts and at the Shostakovich Archives, several previously unknown excerpts have been found: entr’actes between the 3rd and 4th scenes of Act I and between the 1st and 2nd scenes of Act II, as well as a version of the beginning of Act III. The autograph manuscripts and authorized fair copies are described; they will be published in the New Collected Works by Shostakovich (Moscow: DSCH publishers).

Chronicle of Memory. From the American Diaries of Arthur Lourié

The publication is based on the excerpts from Lourié’s American diaries and memoirs, dealing for the most part with his contemporaries and compatriots (both emigrants and those who had remained in Russia), such as Anna Akhmatova, Olga Glebova-Sudeikina, Serge Koussevitzky, Aleksandr Grechaninov, Marc Chagall, Saveliy Sorin, Serge Sudeikin, etc. Most of the excerpts are published for the first time.

V. I. Belsky’s Letters To Andrey Nikolaevich And Mikhail Nikolaevich Rimsky-Korsakov

Publication of letters by the librettist of Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov’s late operas, Vladimir Belsky, who after the revolution of 1917 emigrated to Yugoslavia, to the composer’s sons who lived in Leningrad (1933–45), supplemented by documents related to Belsky’s life and work.